- Haplogroup H3
- Possible time of origin: ∼12,000 YBP
- Possible place of origin: Not Yet Certain
- Ancestor H2:
- Descendants: H3a, H3b, H3c, H3d, H3e, H3f, H3g
- Defining mutations A2706ArCRS, C7028CrCRS, T6776C
- Highest frequencies: Not Yet Certain
H3 Association with Loss of Feeling as a result of Type II Diabetes
Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in rare and common forms of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). While the associations are low, some mitochondrial haplogroups are statistically significant in their association with an increased risk of specific diabetes complications. H is slightly associated with retinopathy, H3 with neuropathy (''loss of sense of feeling/touch''), U3 with nephropathy, and V with renal failure.[3.]
Origin and Expansion
Haplogroup H3 is common in western Europe, having expanded after the Last Glacial Maximum 19,000–20,000 years ago from the refugium in the Franco-Cantabrian region.  Given the date of origin, its expansion seems to be the Late Glacial Maximum or even the Younger Dryas 12,000 to 13,000 years before the present. H3 probably experienced first a bottleneck during the Last Glacial Maximum and then rapid growth during global warming.
In the study by Garcia et al(2011) 320 samples were taken from NW Iberian Peninsula, NE Iberian Peninsula,France, West Islands from Europe, North Central Europe, Other Iberian Peninsula Samples, the Mediterranean Area, Scandinavia, and Northeast Europe. The "Other Iberian Peninsula" samples had the highest percentage of H3 of all samples[8%] and within H samples[18%]found. All five samples from the West Islands[Ireland/British Isles] were H3 with the highest gene and nucleotide diversity, which is an indication of age of H3 from that source.
Archaeological Cultures and Sites Contemporary with H3 Dates of Origin
Magdalenian: one of the later cultures of the Upper Paleolithic in western Europe, dating from around 17,000 BP to 9,000 BP.
Tardenoisian: archaeological culture of the Epipaleolithic period from north-western France and Belgium. Similar cultures are known further east in central Europe (late Mesolithic) and west across Spain. The Tardenoisian lasted from about 7500 BC until the Neolithic.
Phylogenic Tree of Ancestors and Decedents of H3
263, 750, 1438, 2706, 4769, 7028, 8860, 14766, and 15326 are the seven nucleotides are confirmed as rare polymorphisms associated with H2a2 or the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence. It is documented as the Homo sapiens mitochondrion, complete genome, NC_012920 in the Genbank  by the National Center for Biotechnology Information. This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup H3 subclades is drawn from Mannis van Oven, PhyloTree.
[1.]Genome Res. 2005 January; 15(1): 19–24.doi: 10.1101/gr.3182305 PMCID: PMC540273 Copyright © 2005, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, High-resolution mtDNA evidence for the late-glacial resettlement of Europe from an Iberian refugium Luísa Pereira,1 Martin Richards,2 Ana Goios,1 Antonio Alonso,3 Cristina Albarrán,3 Oscar Garcia,4 Doron M. Behar,5 Mukaddes Gölge,6 Jiři Hatina,7 Lihadh Al-Gazali,8 Daniel G. Bradley,9 Vincent Macaulay,10,12 and António Amorim1,
[4.]Roostalu et al (2007), Mol Biol Evol (2007) 24 (2): 436-448. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msl173 First published online: November 10, 2006, "Origin and Expansion of Haplogroup H, the Dominant Human Mitochondrial DNA Lineage in West Eurasia: The Near Eastern and Caucasian Perspective", U Roostalu1,*, I Kutuev*†, E-L Loogväli*, E Metspalu*, K Tambets*, M Reidla*, EK Khusnutdinova†, E Usanga‡, T Kivisild* and R Villems*
[5.] Pierron D, Chang I, Arachiche A, Heiske M, Thomas O, et al. 2011 Mutation Rate Switch inside Eurasian Mitochondrial Haplogroups: Impact of Selection and Consequences for Dating Settlement in Europe. PLoS ONE 6(6): e21543. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021543 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0021543 http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0021543&representation=PDF
 Heredity (2011) 106, 37–45; doi:10.1038/hdy.2010.47; published online 21 April 2010, Using mitochondrial DNA to test the hypothesis of a European post-glacial human recolonization from the Franco-Cantabrian refuge O García1,4, R Fregel2,4, J M Larruga2, V Álvarez3, I Yurrebaso1, V M Cabrera2 and A M González2, Sup.Ref. S12, http://www.nature.com/hdy/journal/v106/n1/extref/hdy201047x1.xls
[7.]PROVISIONAL REFSEQ: This record has not yet been subject to final NCBI review. The reference sequence was derived from J01415. On Jul 8, 2009 this sequence version replaced gi:115315570. This sequence is a corrected version of the HUMMTCG reference sequence. The original Cambridge reference sequence (CRS) is preserved as GenBank J01415 gi:337188 [PMID:7219534] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_012920 National Center for Biotechnology Information http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
[8.][http://www.phylotree.org/ Mannis van Oven, PhyloTree van Oven M, Kayser M. 2009. Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Hum Mutat 30(2):E386-E394. http://www.phylotree.org. doi:10.1002/humu.20921]